Fractional distillation is the process by which oil refineries separate crude oil into different, more useful hydrocarbon products based on their relative molecular weights in a distillation tower.
What is the purpose of fractional distillation?
Fractional distillation separates a mixture into a number of different parts, called fractions. A tall fractionating column is fitted above the mixture, with several condensers coming off at different heights.
Why does crude oil need fractional distillation?
Fractional distillation is used to separate crude oil into simpler, more useful mixtures . This method can be used because different hydrocarbons have different boiling points .
What are the main uses of the fractions of crude oil?
Fractional distillation of crude oil
|Fraction:||No. of carbon atoms:||Uses:|
|Refinery gas||1 – 4||Gaseous fuel, making chemicals.|
|Gasoline (petrol)||4 – 12||Motor car fuel, making chemicals.|
|Kerosine (paraffin)||11 – 15||Heating fuel, jet fuel.|
|Diesel oil||15 – 19||Diesel fuel for lorries, trains, etc. and heating fuel.|
What is the first product of fractional distillation of crude oil?
Fractional distillation of crude oil yields a product boiling between 30°C and about 200°C, known as straight-run gasoline (or sometimes as “naphtha”).
What are the steps of fractional distillation of crude oil?
Fractional Distillation Process
- Evaporation. Crude oil is heated until it evaporates. Crude oil vapour is put into a fractionating column at the bottom and rises upwards.
- Condensation. The temperature is highest at the bottom of the column. …
- Collection. The fractions are collected.
Why is bitumen not used as fuel?
Bitumen itself is a black and very sticky liquid. It’s also highly viscous and so full of carbon that it cannot be used for combustion (unlike gasoline, diesel and jet fuel).
Which process is applied to crude oil?
Crude oil is heated in a furnace to almost 600 °C. Most substances within crude oil will boil at this point and vaporise. The heated gas/liquid oil mixture is fed into the lower section of a distillation column. Substances that remain in their liquid state sink to the bottom of the column and are pumped out.