Fractional distillation is used to separate crude oil into simpler, more useful mixtures . This method can be used because different hydrocarbons have different boiling points .
Why is crude oil heated?
Process: Intense heat is used to break down the heaviest hydrocarbon molecules that have emerged from the bottom of the distillation column. Thermal conversion, or coking, puts these residuals under intense heat and pressure to break down or ‘crack’, large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller molecules.
What happens in fractional distillation of crude oil?
Fractional distillation separates a mixture into a number of different parts, called fractions. A tall fractionating column is fitted above the mixture, with several condensers coming off at different heights. … The crude oil is evaporated and its vapours condense at different temperatures in the fractionating column.
What is heated during fractional distillation?
You heat the mixture of two or more substances (liquids) with different boiling points to a high temperature. Heating is usually done with high pressure steam to temperatures of about 1112 degrees Fahrenheit / 600 degrees Celsius. The mixture boils, forming vapor (gases); most substances go into the vapor phase.
What is the first product of fractional distillation of crude oil?
Fractional distillation of crude oil yields a product boiling between 30°C and about 200°C, known as straight-run gasoline (or sometimes as “naphtha”).
Why is bitumen not used as a fuel?
Bitumen itself is a black and very sticky liquid. It’s also highly viscous and so full of carbon that it cannot be used for combustion (unlike gasoline, diesel and jet fuel).
What country is the fastest growing user of oil?
Global consumption of gasoline could double. The two countries with the highest rate of growth in oil use are China and India, whose combined populations account for a third of humanity. In the next two decades, China’s oil consumption is expected to grow at a rate of 7.5% per year and India’s 5.5%.
How do you remember fractional distillation of crude oil?
Crude oil fractions
One way to remember the names of the fractions is: Lazy Penguins Keep Drinking Hot Beer.