Unleaded gasoline contains at least 15 hazardous chemicals including, by volume, benzene (∼5%), toluene (35%), naphthalene (∼1%), trimethylbenzene (∼7%), and MTBE (∼18%, in some states).
Does gasoline contain toluene?
Toluene is a seven-carbon aromatic hydrocarbon compound that is a minor component (∼5%) of all gasoline. Toluene is a colorless, flammable liquid that is about 15% lighter than water.
Why is toluene used in gasoline?
Toluene is one of the higher-value molecules already in use in many gasoline blends. The main benefit is that it’s an octane booster that does not dilute the energy content of the gasoline like ethanol does.
What is the main ingredient used to rate gasoline?
Today, there are two primary sources of octane used in the U.S. gasoline supply, the BTEX complex (a petroleum refining product commonly referred to as gasoline aromatics), and ethanol.
What does toluene do to the human body?
Symptoms worsen as exposure increases, and long term exposure may lead to tiredness, slow reaction, difficulty sleeping, numbness in the hands or feet, or female reproductive system damage and pregnancy loss. If swallowed, toluene can cause liver and kidney damage.
Is toluene bad for humans?
Toluene is irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. It can cause systemic toxicity by ingestion or inhalation and is slowly absorbed through the skin. The most common route of exposure is via inhalation.
What is the octane rating of methanol?
Methanol reported as having an octane rating of 133 (RON) and 105 (MON), with a combined octane rating of 119 ((R+M)/2). In contrast the combined octane rating of regular gasoline is 87 and that of premium gasoline is 93.
How much does STP octane booster increase octane?
STP Octane Booster
Claiming to increase the octane 2-5 points, in a well-designed-for-pouring bottle, the STP – used in the ratio determined by the label – improved the octane marginally by just over half a point.
What octane number means?
Octane number, also called Antiknock Rating, measure of the ability of a fuel to resist knocking when ignited in a mixture with air in the cylinder of an internal-combustion engine.
Why do we use toluene?
Toluene has numerous commercial and industrial applications: it is a solvent in paints, lacquers, thinners, glues, correction fluid, and nail polish remover, and is used in the printing and leather tanning processes.
Is toluene a drug?
Summary. Toluene, a common organic solvent that for some individuals is a substance of abuse, has been recognized as a neurotoxin that damages cerebral white matter. As the primary solvent in spray paints, thinners, lacquers, and glues, toluene is inhaled for its capacity to cause euphoria.