One way to remember the names of the fractions is: Lazy Penguins Keep Drinking Hot Beer.
What are the fractions of crude oil?
Fractional distillation of crude oil
|Fraction:||No. of carbon atoms:||Boiling point range oC:|
|Gasoline (petrol)||4 – 12||32-160oC|
|Kerosine (paraffin)||11 – 15||160-250oC|
|Diesel oil||15 – 19||220-350oC|
|Residue lubricating oil heavy fuel oil bitumen||C||Above 350oC|
How is crude oil separated into fractions?
Fractional distillation is used to separate crude oil into simpler, more useful fractions. A fraction of crude oil is a group of hydrocarbon molecules of similar size with similar boiling points . Their similar boiling points mean that they can be separated by fractional distillation.
What are the 4 properties of the fractions of crude oil?
Properties of fractions
- numbers of hydrogen and carbon atoms in their molecules.
- boiling points.
- ease of ignition (how easily they are set on fire)
- viscosity (a measure of how they flow)
What is the correct order from lowest to highest boiling point for fractions from crude oil?
This puts the fractions in order from the lowest boiling point to the highest boiling point. The full names of the fractions are petroleum gas, naphtha, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, lubricating oil, fuel oil, and tar. The three we’ll need for this question are gasoline, kerosene and diesel.
Are crude oil fractions pure?
Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons . … The crude oil is evaporated and its vapours condense at different temperatures in the fractionating column. Each fraction contains hydrocarbon molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms and a similar range of boiling points.
Which fractions are the hardest to ignite?
For example, the bitumen fraction contains hydrocarbons with more than 35 carbon atoms. These have boiling points well above room temperature. They are very difficult to ignite and have a high viscosity (they flow with difficulty).
What is the Colour of crude oil?
Crude oil is a naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbons found underground. It can appear in the form of a highly viscous liquid to a thick tar-like substance. The color of crude oil can also range from light yellow to dark brown or black.
Why is crude oil useless without refining?
The answer is no, because each crude oil is very different and made up of a large number of hydrocarbon. … Crude oil is a highly variable mixture of heavy and light hydrocarbons that need to be separated in a refinery to turn them into usable products.
What are two conditions needed for cracking?
Thermal cracking uses harsh conditions like high temperature and high pressure. It breaks the alkanes into a high percentage of alkenes and comparatively few alkanes. Thermal cracking is done at about 1,000 degrees Celcius and 70 atm pressure.